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The Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) begins with the oesophagus (swallowing tube). The oesophagus lies within the chest, while the stomach lies within our abdominal cavity. A muscle known as the diaphragm separates the two organs. The oesophagus continues through an opening in the diaphragm, also known as the hiatus, into the stomach. A hiatal hernia occurs when there is a weakness of the hiatal muscles and the stomach bulges up into the chest through the hiatus.
There are two main types of hiatal hernias: