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Applying Instructional Design Principles to Enhance Surgical Skills Development

Date: 16 Sep 2022, Friday | Time: 1445 - 1615 | Track Type: Main Conference Workshop | Format: Face-to-face | Venue: Seminar Rooms L2-S3 & L2-S4, Academia

Speakers: Dr Dong Chaoyan & Dr Vaikunthan Rajaratnam

Surgical training programmes have evolved from time-based to competency-based schedules. Motor imagery and mental practise are essential for acquiring and mastering surgical skills. The success of this technique relies on the use of a well-developed mental script. In this presentation, we will be sharing how we developed an innovative surgical skills training model by incorporating the mental script for basic micro suturing training on a low-fidelity rubber glove model which allows for the deliberate practice of the procedure without expensive physical simulators and provides trainees with on-demand, self-directed practise to achieve mastery.

To develop the innovative surgical skills training model, we conducted a scoping review of the theories and models of surgical skills acquisition and mastery, and selected four models, including Fitts and Posner’s three-stage model of motor skills acquisition, Bandura’s social learning theory, Ericsson’s deliberate practice model, and Jeannerod’s motor simulation theory.

This new model, which incorporates motor imagery and mental practice, augmented by deliberate practice, provides an alternative training path for expert performance in surgical procedures. We applied the design and development research framework to develop the mental scripts and assess the mental scripts' face and content validity. The process included: 1) Expert surgeons developed a mental script by performing a cognitive walkthrough to repair a vertical opening in a rubber glove model, followed by hierarchical task analysis. 2) A draft script was created, and its face and content validity were assessed with a checking-back process. 3) Junior surgeons used the Mental Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) to assess the validity of the mental script.

The new model can enhance surgical skills training, by including: expert instructional video of the procedure, a mental script incorporating kinaesthetic cues, narration of the mental script incorporated into the video, and easily accessible and inexpensive practice models for deliberate practice.

Learning Outcome(s):

By the end of the workshop, participants will be able to:

  • Grasp the innovative surgical skills training model
  • Apply the innovative model to develop the mental scripts for suturing skills training
  • Discuss how to apply and implement this model in own surgical skills training

Target Audience:

Healthcare educators who plan to integrate technology in teaching procedural skills.

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