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Data De-identification

​Data must be de-identified or anonymised in accordance with the Human Biomedical Research Act (HBRA).

Researchers do not require consent from patients after data are de-identified.

SingHealth Health Services Research Centre (HSRC) carries out this process in accordance with HBRA, and the 15 direct identifiers below are rendered non-identifiable:

  • Names
  • Telephone and Fax numbers
  • Electronic mail addresses
  • National Registration Identity Card (NRIC), Foreign Identity Numbers (FIN) and Passport Number
  • Medical record numbers
  • Account numbers
  • Certificate/license numbers
  • Vehicle identifiers and serial numbers, including license plate numbers
  • Device identifiers and serial numbers
  • Web Universal Resource Locators (URLs) and Internet Protocol (IP) address numbers
  • Biometric identifiers, including finger and voice prints
  • Full face photographic images and any comparable images
  • Any other unique identifying number, characteristic, or code.
  • All spot geographic patient address information, at unit level and their equivalent geocodes, except for the initial four digits of a postal code and similar geographic divisions/sub-divisions
  • Date of birth (except month and year for the date of birth).


For further info: